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The Long Way Home


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Everyone had a different idea about when the next truck would pass, ranging from 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. One passed, but it was totally packed.


Truck

Enlarge

One guy was even hanging outside the rear bar. I sat and waited on, rambling on in great detail in my logbook to look occupied and unreceptive to questioning by passing people. I remarked about the difference between shopping in Chile and Bolivia. In a Chile, shops have a system whereby you must pay first, then take your receipt to another counter to pick up your merchandise. I presume it is so you can't take the merchandise and run. In Bolivia, they hand you the merchandise before you pay. You must ask, however, for the exact name of the products. "Paté de carne" (meat spread) will produce a "No hay," period. But you see they have "picadillo de carne" cans on the shelf—same thing. "Refresco en polvo" (flavor crystals): "No hay," but giving the brand name "Royal," etc. works!

I sure was relieved at 11:20 when I got a ride on an open Toyota pickup to Sorata.


Bike on truck

Enlarge

They tied the bike to the back bar and I climbed in the cramped compartment. About 10 people, ranging in size from children to a fat woman, were crammed amid wooden boxes, huge clusters of bananas, propane tanks, and large sacs. When we got going, I understood why many people were not sitting. The road was so rough, shaking and rocking us like mad, that people held on to the bars for dear life. A guy offered me a tangerine, but I refused that even one hand let go of the bars, for fear of bashing my head on it. We had to duck to escape being smacked by branches, but the woven baskets dangling outside the compartment, whipped branches, grazed cliff sides, and cleared passing vehicles by sheer millimeters. As we gained altitude, the scenery became spectacular and the ride terrifying, The road climbed awesome canyons and twisted continually, without any guardrails, of course. The tires took a beating and often rolled dreadfully close to the edge, so I prayed that none would succumb to a blowout. The air was clear compared with the fogged out descent into the Yungas two weeks ago. The driver honked at every blind curve and at anyone anywhere near the road. He seemed to take pleasure at splashing people by puddles. We often dodged sheep, pigs, and dogs, but the worst were the cattle that refused to get out of the way until a herdsman slapped them with a stick. Many high areas had sparse vegetation and were almost uninhabited. Rivers below twisted between wrinkled mountains. Nobody noticed that one guy's briefcase fell out, and when he realized it, he yelled frantically to the driver. We backtracked for 10 minutes, but in vain, so he moaned and complained about the important documents he had lost. After some sacks were unloaded, my bike was no longer padded, and it banged around wildly, tearing the saddle on a bar. I felt bad for the guy sitting next to it; the pedal slammed in his back at every bump. Despite his tormented facial expressions, he never complained; such hardships seem part of these people's normal life. We all became totally dusty and my eyes and throat ached. After seven grueling hours of being poked and banged by bananas and propane tanks, I spotted Sorata in a charming valley, where I disembarked at the clean plaza. My arms ached, my brain felt sloshed around, someone had sat on my camera, and my helmet was all scratched up, but everything had survived.

I rolled the bike to Residencial Sorata, where many gringos hung out in an elegant parlor. In a restaurant, two of the British girls that I had met at Laguna Colorada 1000 kilometers away, recognized me. Their research grant had expired and they were taking in some of Bolivia before returning home. After they stepped out, I joined a jolly drunken old British man, Tom Keys. He made up word jokes like, when I told him I was in a rush to get to La Paz, he started talking about grasses and rushes. He is a free spirit living on his grandfather's will money, writing novels and now studying Aymara etymology. So he claimed... I tested him to translate a few words that I had photocopied somewhere, and he only got one 1 of 10! The local waitress stepped over, completed the list, and equally went through the Quechua words.


April 30: The administrator of the residencial, Louis, is also a Québecer and he was so pleased to converse in Québec French that he hung around my room even as I did chores. He had engaged in amateur gold exploration at the base of nearby Nevado Illampu (6342m). This sacred mountain was now sadly completely obscured in clouds. I couldn't get a good explanation on why he had been living here five years. Was he a seeker of higher meaning or a fugitive? I washed the fuel bottle and filled it with my take-home supply of the trivially priced 96% alcohol.

The name of colorful Mercedes bus to La Paz was "San Cristobal." Raising the bike up the ladder to the roof rack was a chore requiring three people. After the seats were sold out, they continued selling tickets until there was no standing room left either. The seats were so close together that my knees pressed hard on the next one and even harder at every bump as bus jarred and jostled up the rough road. The fat lady squashing me from the side didn't help. This bus was definitely not built with tall (1.88m) gringos in mind. The gears ground as the driver down-shifted up steep inclines while doing the usual honking. The motor forced hard to haul the packed bus up to over "FULL" on my Casio altimeter watch (4000m) in fog and drizzle. We had made it onto the Altiplano, where the road was actually paved. We stopped and disembarked for a few minutes at a police checkpoint, while I joined a row of guys peeing in a field.

The lofty peaks of the Cordillera Real revealed themselves, then we passed by Lago Titicaca, the world's largest (180-kilometer-long) lake at this altitude (3810m). This legendary birthplace of the Incas bears a mystical character with its beige hills and sailboats made of reeds.

I got off in El Alto, a bustling suburb on the rim on the La Paz canyon. Bystanders helped taking down the bike, as soon as I asked them. While meandering between people and traffic, I felt the altitude a bit and my hands felt the cold a lot, until I stopped to put on wool gloves. What a difference from the lowlands! I checked out many junkyards asking for a souvenir license plate, but they only presented me old rusty ones. I would have searched longer, but I had more pressing concerns like running around for packing materials for the flight. I dropped off my stuff at alojamiento Oruro and went walking for a last look at Bolivian ways. Thousands of shops and stands lined the smelly streets. A cacophony of honks and music blared amid a mass of people, which was devoid of tourists. At the lodge, some loud mouth made a racket at 3:00 a.m.


May 1: Flattened cardboard boxes were piled on the luggage as I rode to the highest international airport in the world (4082m). Imagine, that is nearly the altitude ceiling of a Cessna single-engine plane. Only a few people gathered to watch as I dismantled, wrapped, and boxed the stuff. I bought a souvenir sticker of the emblem of Bolivia with the llama and volcanos, but the joke was that it was made in New York.

The clean jet was a fantastic luxury by Bolivian standards. The wings searched frantically for some air to push against as the jet hurtled up the runway. Finally, after twice the normal time and at a dizzying ground speed, we climbed to the sky. I was off to Santiago 2000 kilometers south and farther from home, because the illogical fare structure made this roundabout route cheaper than Montreal direct, which meant I was blessed with a free flight along the Andes. I was riveted to the window looking at an astonishing view of Inca corral patterns, and natural wonders. I mentally listed the possible identity of each imposing mountain that went by, as we roughly retraced parts of my route. I was completely satisfied despite my identification shortcomings, because those mountains with which I did have intimate contact, had been captivating. I was amazed that I had covered more distance by mountain bike on some of the meanest, toughest roads in the Americas, than on this entire 2-hour-and-40-minute flight.

I helped an illiterate Bolivian fill his Chilean entry form. I had three leisurely days to my connecting flight home so I headed downtown on the bike that aged a good deal since its last visit. Coming from Bolivia, the prosperity of Chile hit me. I noticed new cars, clean buildings, and even a car rental agency where four months ago, there had been only thorny bushes and kids begging for spare change. Armed with Jim's recommendation, I found Hotel Indiana going for $5, a fraction of what I had blown in my uninformed days.


May 2: I went walking downtown, but the city was dead quiet on that Sunday morning, except for the outdoor concert by the carabineros while 150 men stood in formation by the headquarters. What a difference from business hours, when it is a task to even walk. Also, what a difference in the temperature, now that winter was approaching. I rode a French-built subway train to the Universidad de Santiago de Chile and checked out its creative modern architecture.


May 3: The first rain of the year started coming down just as I was about to go for a bike ride. It quickly grew to torrential proportions, and found its way through the ceiling of my room. I placed a garbage bag on the dresser to guide the drip to my cooking pot. In the courtyard, the women were frantically scrambling to unplug the drains.

When the downpour subsided, I went out looking for flooding, but Santiago had been well prepared for such an onslaught. Río Mapocho, with high banks armored with stone bricks, had successfully channeled the raging 12-knot torrent.


Rio Mapocho flooded

Enlarge

Huge standing waves churned in the grey water that emanated the scent of fresh soil. A large dump truck that had been washed away, tumbled like a toy, and headed for the Pacific, along with large trees and streams of floating trash. News reporters videotaped the rushing current as it grazed an overpass. I biked along the river through an elegant park garnished with contemporary art sculptures and a museum, then headed to Cerro San Cristobal. It has striking similarities with Montreal's Mount Royal and Mexico City's Cerro de La Estrella. All three are 200 meters above city level, are dedicated to urban recreation, have a paved road to the crest where a catholic religious symbol dominates, and have lookouts over the city on the way. By a 10-meter-high statue of the Immaculate Conception, I tried to identify city streets, but the wind ripped the wet map apart. I had a blast dashing down the mountain, then proceeded to the Federación de Andinismo, hoping my valuable mountaineering equipment had made it from Copiapó.

The sight of the cardboard baby-diaper box elated me. It was in front of the counter, almost in the way in the tiny office. I thanked Sr. Rojas and offered a safekeeping fee, but he refused, in solidarity between mountaineers. I got to work assembling the trailer and hauled everything to the hotel.


May 4: I'm glad nature gave me an early wake up call because I slept right through the watch alarm.

It felt as if I was dragging a parachute as I cycled back to the airport with the large box tied on the trailer. I got away without paying the excess luggage fee this time; the wrapped-up-bike with handlebars turned and pedals removed was less imposing than a bulky cardboard bicycle box.


Bike on plane


From the sky's vantage point I bid farewell to the Andes, now covered with fresh snow, and to its glaciers and azure lakes. The Argentine farmlands had experienced the downpour too; a river flowed far beyond its banks, and thousands of lakes speckled the fields. The view over Río by night was dazzling, with haphazard patterns of lights among the hills, islands, lakes, and bays. It was a restless night of the jet set.


May 5: I expected a meticulous search for Bolivian cocaine, but the Canadian customs officer whisked me through. Everything, including my body, had made it back... in one piece.

My "finishing touch" campsite was in a forest just past the airport perimeter fence. The fragrance of the spruce trees and leaves on the soggy soil just uncovered by the spring thaw, was sensational in its familiarity. The late sunset was in striking contrast with that of the southern hemisphere, approaching its winter.


May 6: I plowed the bike through fallen branches to get back to the road, while listening to strangely familiar insect and bird sounds, but they were deafened when jets roared by. Passing bungalow suburbs, I experienced clashing flashbacks of brown adobe huts with straw roofs. After 3181 kilometers of cycling and the trip of a lifetime, the house key reunited with its keyhole. I thanked the spirits for the privilege of having that fascinating opportunity.

The expedition had been a smashing success! The only shortcomings, relating to the itinerary, had been the canceled visit to the high Aucanquilcha sulfur mine and the abbreviated Yungas circuit, both due to regrettable scheduling constraints. Yes it had been difficult. Some of the cycling had been downright extreme, but these are experiences which mellow with time to become sweet memories. Self-propulsion had provided a profound satisfaction of achievement. The clean and quiet locomotion had been in harmony with nature and rendered athletic health to my body. The freedom resulting from self-reliance had spawned supreme exhilaration. The modest pace of cycling had required for me to be thoroughly immersed in the environment, thus to effectively connect with nature and people. The awareness gained has been very enriching to my very essence. ¡Adios!


Epilog: With my Altiplano blood still thick with red blood cells, my heartbeat at rest was 44, comparable to that of an athlete. My digestive system was tuned in an extremely efficient state. With the sudden cut in daily energy expenditure, my weight swung from 70 to 82 kilos, severely overshooting my normal 75 kilos.

Jim reported to me in letters that he had attempted four nevados in Bolivia, Ecuador and Columbia. He contracted dreaded malaria in the Bolivian rainforest. Jürgen also experienced a dreadful adventure, being robbed so severely in Lima, that he returned home in disgust. I knew Peru has so many repugnant people that I had given it the lowest travel priority; I can do without those kinds of adventures. Had Licancábur cast retribution to him for attempting to scale its sacred peak?

What's next? I definitely must get this book printed, if only for the pride and a parcel of immortality. Then, who knows, Iceland, Siberia, Kamchatka, the Karakoram "highway," African rift valley, or the ultimate challenge: polar regions. Oh yes, I also should work sometimes—money helps!

- End -




The Explorer-Adventurers


We have an insatiable thirst to experience the world firsthand.

We derive intense satisfaction in challenging difficult, insecure and uncomfortable environments.

We take the time to observe and absorb, because we are not racing. We are not competing with anyone but ourselves.

Our encounters with vastly different environments, lifestyles, and beliefs profoundly expand our interest and awareness of the world.

Witnessing meager standards of living forever changes our perception of the western preoccupation with striving for material wealth.

When we return home, we feel delighted at regaining the little pleasures that have been denied to us in faraway lands.

We have frequent flashbacks of our expeditions and take pleasure in telling others our experiences.

We become tolerant of petty annoyances or discomforts and become patient in our projects.

But the ceasing of discovery and strong sensations precipitate in us a long emotional slump.

Sensations we once held to be exciting become less so.

Is it worth it? Like they say, "It's better to have loved (traveled) and lost (come home) than never to have loved at all."

Once we have eaten from the tree of knowledge, we cannot go back to ignorance.

While on expeditions, our attention is intensely focused and nothing else matters, but back home it is difficult to concentrate on what we are doing.

Our successes strongly reinforce our self-esteem. We can do anything, but we find we don't really want to do anything but explore.

We dream of more adventures, and when preoccupation turns to obsession, we are bound to realize them.

We are fascinated with the stories of other explorers and we plan our expeditions to avoid their misfortunes.

Are we escaping from something or have we been unfortunate with normal life? The true weight of these factors lies hidden from us.

What do we search for? We don't really know, until we find it.

Ultimately, we explore to find ourselves.

Our passion for adventure continues...





Appendix: The Equipment


An "*: " means I did not bring it, but I would if I were to repeat the expedition. Several of these items acquired during the journey.

An "X: " means I did bring it, but I wouldn't if I were to repeat the expedition. It would either never be useful on this journey or another item would be better.


Mountaineering

mountaineering boots: Scarpa Vega double boots with Vibram sole.

crampons: Lowe Footfangs with step-in binding. Some of plastic sole plate cut off. Wrapped in heavy-gauge plastic to protect other gear.

ice axe: Fader. Added sling for wrist strap. Used plugs over points when in transport. X: 65cm; *: 70cm

backpack: Camp Trails Elite with internal frame. Added extra straps on the outside, and Canadian flag patch. 106 liter (6500 cu. in.)

belly pack: Kanuk gourde bag. Added shoulder straps in "X" configuration and wire to stiffen lip. Aids walking with heavy loads. Can be worn under clothes; keeps critical drinking water liquid.

altimeters: Electronic: Casio 510 3BM-100W watch (limit: 4000m). Aneroid: YCM (recalibrated to 7300m against a mercury column, but very inaccurate at high altitudes because I neglected to correct for temperature).

headlamp: Petzl Zoom. Spare regular and halogen bulbs; and AA battery adapter.

glacier goggles: Barracuda B100, mirrored, with double lenses. Defogging solution. Good seal against skin; also used in windy and dusty conditions.

*: handle and disk: To use tent poles as ski pole.


Cycling

bicycle: Raleigh mountain bike with Alesa 26mm aluminum alloy concave rims. Added home-made racing-handlebar extensions, Blizzard snow tires, alloy front and rear luggage racks; Lugger and Norco Blackcomb large front and rear cycle bags (internal plastic frame on Luggers disintegrated); Zefal plastic mudguards, LED strobe tail light, trailer hitch ring, and X: mechanical odometer; *: electronic cyclometer.

tools: Vice-Grip 5WR pliers, 6" adjustable wrench filed thin to use as axle cone key, 4 different allan keys, multiple-tip screwdriver (stuffed foam in handle to suppress rattling), 3 Zefal plastic tire "irons", 40cm plastic air pump, *: adapter tube for non-Schraeder valves, metal inner tube roughener, chain extractor (Removed lever. Can use with pliers.), *: pedal extractor, *: freewheel extractor.

spare parts: Rear axle and *: cones; 2 rear spokes, derailleur cable, mechanical odometer with extra spoke pin and rubber; inner tube, 20 tube patches, 2 tubes of patch glue, petroleum oil. Tiny quantities of X: lithium grease; *: marine bearing grease, and *: silicone grease. Various metal wires, screws, washers, nuts, and ball bearings. *: Self-locking nylon ties, *: zipper for cycle bag, and *: cyclometer battery.

airline packing: Rope, and wide adhesive tape. X: Cardboard bicycle box; *: large plastic sheet (payed no excess cargo), and cardboard box for luggage (custom-sized for maximum size allowed by Aerolineas Argentinas).

trailer: Home made. Can be disassembled for airline transport. Hitch rotates if trailer flips. Flatbed sized for backpack. Spare hitch, axle, and *: mending plates.

other accessories: Brancale SP-4 helmet, Citadel "U" shaped lock with circular key, 2 hooked elastics, and X: 112 studs for Blizzard tires.


Camping

tent: Black Diamond Mountain Spirit "A" frame with center hoop and fly. Added 4 guy lines. 6 plastic snow stakes and 6 aluminum soil stakes. *: Spare fiberglass pole section.

sleeping bag: Trekk Solarsilk IV with polarguard filling and aluminized inner liner (wore off). Rated -18°C (use parka for colder). Stored in nylon laundry bag with plastic bag liner.

mattress: Therm-a-Rest 3/4 length inflatable. Patch and glue.


Clothes

head and torso: Outdoor Research Gorilla balaclava with detachable beak, acrylic hat, sun cap, Richlu down parka with waist drawcord, Banff Designs Polarplus Dacron polyester sweater, thick acrylic sweater, 65% polyester/35% cotton T-shirt, Adidas nylon jacket with hood, Peterstorm MVT waterproof and breathable rain jacket.

hands: Outdoor Research Expedition mittens and Gore-Tex shells with sealed seams; Auclair Nahanni Experience wool gloves with thinsulate lining.

legs: Baysport ski pants with polyester filling, 65% polyester/35% rayon pants (Grey; won't look dirty. Added inner pocket for money.), belt, acrylic jogging pants, briefs (only one!), Peterstorm MVT waterproof and breathable rain pants; cycling shorts.

feet: Trezeta leather hiking boots with Gore-Tex lining. Boots: also see mountaineering section. Outdoor Research "X" insulated supergaiters, 2 pairs 80% wool/20% nylon socks, small polypropylene socks.


Food and water

stove: Coleman Peak I multi-fuel. Kerosene generator, wind screen (home-made with several layers of aluminum foil), spare leather pump disc, *: silicone oil. 1/2-liter fuel can and X: 1-liter Canadian Tire fuel bottle; *: 1-liter Sigg aluminum fuel bottle. X: Fire paste; *: friction string.

food ware: small aluminum pot (added lockable top handle) and lid; X: plastic spoon; *: stainless steel spoon, small Swiss Army pocket knife (two blades only), cup, thumb can opener, toothpicks, 10-kilo pocket weight scale, 350ml pre-soak jar with wide lid (reduces fuel consumption), *: 500ml soda bottle for vegetable oil.

water ware: 2 1-liter Nalgene HDPE plastic bottles with wide lids, plastic water bag for Kanuk gourd converted to belly pack (see mountaineering section), *: 5-liter square LDPE plastic jug, *: 2-liter PETE bottle, 336 iodine tablets, Jackson desert still (large transparent sheet with vinyl tubing).

dehydrated food: Brought or mailed from home: Hardee freeze-dried beef hamburger patties and steaks; chicken, pork patties and lamb. Dry fish, pepperoni sticks. Purchased locally: rice, noodles, chick peas, lentils, quinoa, soya flakes, oil, soup powders, oatmeal, corn flakes, cookies, candies, nuts, chocolate, potato chips, dried raisins, figs, dates, prunes; tea, flavor crystals, hot chocolate powder, sugar, salt.


Hygiene and cleaning

Soap, shampoo, *: laundry soap, face cloth, toilet paper (in Ziploc bag), toothbrush and toothpaste; comb, razors, condoms, nail clip (lever removed; used with Vice-Grip), 2 contact lens vials, 3 different contact lens solutions and protein removal tablets; rag, and small brush.

Documents

money: US$1100 cash and some CAN$ cash (in leg pouch, inner pant pocket, shoes, and map bag) *: the bills should be new; US$1240 American Express traveler's checks (other brands difficult to cash), Bank of Montreal card, Master Charge credit card.

others: Passport with Bolivian Visa, Chilean tourist card (acquired locally), yellow fever vaccination certificate, Québec medicare card, Mutual of Omaha insurance contract (includes mountaineering coverage), contact lens prescription, medicine prescriptions, first-aid notes, emergency procedure notes, accident report form, bicycle registration, driver's licence, airline tickets, certified mail receipt for meats sent to Argentina, maps (see reference section) in two waterproof map bags with Velcro closure, post card mailing list, Spanish-French dictionary and Berlitz Latin American Spanish phrase book; notes about Bolivia, inventory list, itinerary list, photocopies of airline tickets and passport; traveler's check serial number sheet, personal logbook, X: Electrocardiogram readout, X: certificate of good health, X: 4 small photos of myself, Aconcagua climbing permit (acquired locally), *: Ojos del Salado border permit, *: temperature correction chart for altimeter.


Medicine

medicines: Prescription: Diamox (Altitude acclimatization aid. Did not use.), Peptol and Tagamet (stomach acid control); Aralen (chloroquine: malaria preventative), Fansidar (malaria treatment). Non-prescription: Immodium (diarrhoea control), Tylenol, Aluminum and magnesium hydroxide (antacids); potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate (electrolyte restoration); acidopholus bacteria (restores intestinal flora), caffeine, and multivitamins (Used when lacking fresh fruits and vegetables.)

first aid: Abdominal padding, gauze pads, eye pad, various adhesive bandages, benzalkonium chloride and isopropyl alcohol antiseptic towelettes; wet towelettes, ammonia inhalants, medical tape, and *: snake bite kit.

General Repair

Krazy Glue, X: electric tape; *: duct tape, 14kg strength nylon fishing line, 3 sewing needles (2 of which fit the fishing line), *: scissors. Assorted metal wires, strings, elastics, and safety pins.


Gifts

Canadian post cards, Canada pins, balloons, cigarettes, potato peelers, *: vitamins, *: Canada stickers, *: Canadian coins.


Miscellaneous

Bushnell photochromatic sunglasses (added elastic to use over hat), spare pair of contact lenses, 2 BIC butane lighters, plastic mirror, Uco Candle Lantern (base only), Uco candles, whistle, Halt capsaicin hot pepper animal repellent spray *: with safety cap, 95% DEET insect repellent, Paba 15 sunblock lotion, Mt. Everest Skreen sunblock lotion (used on lips only), lip sunblock stick, *: ultraviolet measuring card, dust mask, Silva 7NL compass (scribed lines every 10° to use as protractor), wire (to measure distances on maps), mechanical pencil, *: calculator, thermometer, fish hooks, Pentax Zoom 60 compact camera (autofocus became deteriorated), 11 rolls of Fuji 200 36 exposures, door lock, apartment key, 330ml of 95% drinking alcohol, and cigar in rigid tube. Assorted plastic bags (ex: garbage bags, Ziploc bags, etc.), nylon pouches, and twist ties.




References

Preparations

Bass, Dick, Frank Wells, and Rick Ridgeway. Seven Summits. New York: Warner Books, 1986.

Berlitz Guides. Latin-American Spanish for Travellers. Lausanne, Switzerland: Berlitz Publishing S.A., 1986.

Boraiko, Allen A., and David Alan Harvey. "Acts of Faith in Chile." National Geographic. July 1988.

Bradt, Hilary. Backpacking and Trekking in Peru and Bolivia. Chalfont St. Peter, Bucks, United Kingdom: Bradt Publications, 1989.

Bradt Publications. Backpacking in Chile and Argentina. Chalfont St. Peter, Bucks, United Kingdom, 1991.

Coleman, A. P. "Glimpses of the High Andes." Canadian Alpine Journal. 1918.

Conway, William G., "In Quest of the Rarest Flamingo." (Laguna Colorada, Bolivia) National Geographic. July, 1961.

Culbert, Dick. "Some Climbs in South America; Part I: Amoebas on Aconcagua." Canadian Alpine Journal. 1967.

Dennison, Edward S. "Ambassadors of Good Will: The Peace Corps; Bolivia." National Geographic. September, 1964.

Drapier, Michel. Bolivia 3. France: Collection Regards, 1983.

Fawcett, Ron (rock), Jeff Lowe (ice), Paul Nunn (alpine), Alan Rouse (expeditions). Climbing. London: Bell and Hymen, 1986.

Fletcher, Colin. The Complete Walker. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984.

Foster, H. N. Dereck. The Argentines: How They Live and Work. Newton Abbot, Great Britain: David and Charles, 1972.

Giordano Carlos, and Saul Yurkievich. Dictionnaire Français-Espagnol, Espagnol-Français. Paris: Dictionnaires Le Robert, 1992.

Green, Peter. "Cerro Aconcagua." Canadian Alpine Journal. 1989.

Guinness Publishing. Guinness Book of Records. Enfield, Middlesex, England, 1991.

Hart, John. Walking Softly in the Wilderness. San Francisco: Sierrra Club Books, 1977.

Hodgson, Bryan, and James P. Blair. "Argentina's New Beginning." National Geographic. August, 1986.

Huxley, Anthony Julian, ed. Standard Encyclopedia of the World's Mountains. London: Weidenfeild and Nicolson Educational, 1962.

Kelly, Rob. "The High Road." Canadian Alpine Journal. 1985.

McIntyre, Loren. "Flamboyant is the Name for Bolivia." National Geographic. February, 1966.

McIntyre, Loren. "Which Way Now for Argentina?" National Geographic. March, 1975.

McIntyre, Loren. "The High Andes." National Geographic. April, 1987.

Morrow, Patrick. Beyond Everest: The Quest for the Seven Summits. Camden House Publishing, 1986.

Newby, Eric. Great Ascents: A Narrative History of Mountaineering. Vancouver: Douglas, David, and Charles, 1977.

Panet, J.P., and Zack Lewis. Latin America on Bicycle. Champlain, N.Y.: Passport Press, 1987.

Petzoldt, Paul. The Wilderness Handbook. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1974.

Quillet Flamarion. Encyclopédie de la Montagne. Paris, 1964.

Rockefeller, Mary; Laurance Rockefeller, and George F. Mobley. "Parks, Plans, and People: How South America Guards Her Green Legacy." National Geographic. January, 1967.

Sélection du Reader's Digest. Dictionnaire Illustré des Merveilles Naturelles du Monde. 1977.

Sherman, Paddy. Expeditions to Nowhere. Chapter 7: "Argentina: Roof of the Western World." Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1981.

Swaney, Deanna. Bolivia: A Travel Survival Kit. Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet, 1988.

Trade and Travel Publications. South American Handbook. 1991.

Young, Gordon, and George F. Mobley. "Chile: Republic on a Shoestring." National Geographic. October, 1973.

Maps

Automóvil Club Argentino. República Argentina. 1986. 1:4,000,000.

Capellas, Carles; Josep Paytubi, and Jerzy Wala. (Poland and Spain) American Alpine Club. Aconcagua. 1987. 1:50,000. (Scale in error; measured 1:58 800.)

Comision de Limites. Copia Parcial de la Cartografia de la Comision Mixta de Limites. (Argentina and Chile) Hojas XV-5, XV-6, XV-7, XV-8, y XV-9. Includes Ojos del Salado. 1991. 1:200,000.

Ejército Argentino—Instituto Geográfico Militar. Carta Topográfica de la Rubublica Argentina.

    Hoja 3369-13-2 Las Cuevas, Mendoza. 1951. 1:50,000.

    Hoja 3369-14-1 Puente del Inca, Mendoza. 1951. 1:50,000.

    Hoja 3369-7 Cerro Aconcagua, San Juan-Mendoza. 1946. 1:100,000.

    Hoja 3369 Mendoza. 1969. 1:500,000.

    Hoja 2969 Tinogasta. 1964. 1:500,000.

    Hoja 2769 Fiambala. 1962. 1:500,000.

Informaciones Unidas Para America Latina. Gran Mapa Caminero de Chile. 1987. 1:1,400,000 and 1:2,000,000.

Informaciones Unidas Para America Latina. Plano de Santiago.

Instituto Geográfico Militar de Bolivia.

    SE-19-3 La Paz. 1969. 1:250,000.

    SE-19-7 (includes Volcán Ollagüe). 1972. 1:250,000.

    SE-19-11 (includes Laguna Colorada). 1972. 1:250,000.

    Hoja 4 & 7 Mapa de la República de Bolivia. 1973. 1,000,000.

Instituto Geográfico Militar de Chile.

    2669 (includes Nevado de San Francisco). 1:250,000.

    2670 (includes Salar de Maricunga). 1:250,000.

    2769 Ojos del Salado. 1:250,000.

    2770 Copiapó. 1971. 1:250,000.

    2100-6800 Calama. 1:500,000.

    2500-6600 Nevado de San Francisco. 1:500,000.

    2700-6600 Ojos del Salado. 1:500,000.

Laboratoires de climatologie et de cartographie—Université Laval, Québec. Carte Climatique de la Région Andine Bolivienne. 1979. 1:1,500,000.

Servicio Nacional de Turismo. Region de Atacama: Mapa Rutero Regional y Plano Copiapó.

Swaney, Deanna. Bolivia: A Travel Survival Kit. Used map of city center of La Paz. Hawthorn, Victoria, Austrailia: Lonely Planet, 1988.

Trade and Travel Publications. South American Handbook. Used map of city center of Mendoza. 1991.


Research after expedition

Anonymous. "Mountain Climber Dies." Halifax Daily News. January 24, 1993.

Baker, P. E., O. Gonzales-Ferran, and D. C. Rex. "Geology and Geochemistry of the Ojos del Salado Volcanic Region, Chile." Journal of the Geological Society. Vol. 144, 1987.

Bolinder, Anders. "The Exploration of the Southern Puna de Atacama." The Mountain World 1966/1967. Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, 1968.

Bolt, Bruce A. Earthquakes. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1988.

Bordeleau, Stéphane, and Brigitte Lefebvre. "Alaska-Terre de Feu." La Presse (Montreal). Several reports on their bicycle journey May, 1992 to June, 1993.

Brunier, Serge. "Extreme Astronomy." (Attempt to set a telescope on Ojos del Salado.) Sky and Telescope. October, 1989.

Buechler, Hans C. The Bolivian Aymara. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1971.

Crane, Richard, and Nicholas Crane. Bicycles up Kilimanjaro. Sparkford, Nr. Yeovil, Somerset, England, 1985.

Francis, Peter W, and de Silva, Shanaka L.. Volcanoes of the Central Andes. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1991.

Global Volcanism Network, Smithsonian Institution. "Summary of Recent Volcanic Activity." Bulletin of Volcanology. No. 55, 1993.

Gracey, William. Measurement of Aircraft Speed and Altitude. Washington D.C.: NASA, 1980.

Casertano, L. Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes of the World, Part XV: Chilean Continent. IAVCEI, Naples, Italy, 1963.

Julyan, Robert Hixson. Mountain Names. Seattle, Washington: The Mountaineers, 1984.

McIntyre, Loren. "Lost Empire of the Incas." National Geographic. December, 1973.

Reinhard, Johan. "Sacred Peaks of the Andes." National Geographic. March, 1992.

Reinhard, Johan. "Sacred Mountains: An Ethno-Archaeological Study of High Andean Ruins." Mountain Research and Development. Vol. 5, No. 4, 1985.

Risacher, François. "Géochimie des Lac Salés et Croûtes de Sel de l'Altiplano Bolivien." Sciences Géologiques. Bulletin. Vol. 45, 1992.

Risacher, François and Bertrand Fritz. "Quaterary Geochemical Evolution of the Salars of Uyuni and Coipasa, Central Altiplano, Bolivia." Chemical Geology. Vol. 90, 1991.

Rojo, Hugo Boero. Descubriendo Bolivia. La Paz: Los Amigos del Libro, 1988.

Rudolph, William E. Vanishing Trails of the Atacama. New York: American Geographical Society, 1963.

Rudolph, William E. "Licancábur: Mountain of the Atacameños." The Geographical Review. April, 1955.

Schobinger, Juan. "Sacrifices of the High Andes." Natural History. April, 1991.

Voynick, Stephen M. "Getting High on Aconcagua." Américas. January-February, 1988.

Williams, Stanley N. and David T. Lescinsky. "Volcanology." Geotimes. February, 1994.



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